On November 4, 2019, Iran doubled the number of advanced centrifuges it operates. Iran also enriches uranium to 4.5 per cent; The agreement limits enrichment to 3.67%. [Citation needed] On November 5, 2019, Iranian nuclear chief Ali Akbar Salehi announced that Iran would enrich uranium at the Fordow fuel enrichment plant to 5 percent, adding that it was able to enrich uranium to 20 percent if necessary. [378] Iran accused the United States of not respecting its obligations and accused Europe of submitting to American unilateralism. To keep the deal alive, the France, Germany and the UK introduced a barter system called INSTEX to facilitate transactions with Iran outside the US banking system. However, the system is only for food and drugs that are already exempt from U.S. sanctions. Iran`s development of nuclear technology began in the 1970s, when the United States launched the Atoms for Peace program with the support of Iran, which was then led by the Shah. [26] Iran signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1968 as a non-nuclear-weapon State and ratified the NPT in 1970. [26] On August 5, Obama delivered a speech to an audience of about 200 people at American University, marking a new phase in the administration`s campaign for the deal.

[197] [198] He said, “Let`s not mince our words: the choice we face is ultimately between diplomacy and some form of war – maybe not tomorrow, maybe not in three months, but soon. How can we, in all conscience, justify war before we have tested a diplomatic agreement that achieves our goals? [197] In his speech, Obama also referred to a speech by John F. Kennedy at American University in 1963 for the Partial Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. [197] Obama also said that the opponents of the deal were the same people who created the “drumbeat of war” that led to the iraq war, criticizing “the instinctive partisanship that has become all too familiar, the rhetoric that makes every decision a disaster, a capitulation.” [197] When the IAEA examines Iran`s implementation of key nuclear commitments: July 28, 2015, MEP Sander M. Levin, a Michigan Democrat who serves as the longest-serving Jewish member of Congress, announced in a lengthy statement that he would support the JCPOA, saying, “The deal is the best way” to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon, and that rejecting the deal would result in a “rapid collapse” of the international sanctions regime. because “sanctions are unlikely to be maintained, even by our closest allies. and the United States would be isolated if it tried to impose our unilateral sanctions on Iran`s banking and oil sectors. [273] [309] [310] Reuters reported that exemptions were granted to Iran prior to January 16, 2016. The stated purpose of the exemptions was that sanctions relief and other benefits could begin on that date, rather than Iran violating them. But whether we catch Iran cheating is less important than the price they know they will pay if we catch it. Deterrence should not only apply to the life of the agreement. [249] As part of a deterrence strategy, Ross proposed transferring the Bunker Buster massive ordnance penetrator (MOP) bomb from the United States to Israel some time before the fifteenth year of the agreement.

[249] In an August 25 editorial in the Washington Post, Ross and David H. Trump said that the United States and its allies could not prevent Iran from building a nuclear weapon “under the decaying and rotten structure of the current agreement.” Conversely, in late August, a group of 900 rabbis signed an open letter from Kalman Topp and Yonah Bookstein calling on Congress to reject the agreement. [257] The Orthodox Union and the American Jewish Committee also announced their opposition to the agreement. [258] [259] Moreover, the JCPOA does not eliminate any of our options when it comes to preventing Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapon. As I have repeatedly emphasized, my Government will take all necessary means to achieve that goal, including military means. If Iran attempts to rush toward a nuclear weapon, all options available to the US – including the military option – will remain available throughout the terms of the deal and beyond. [383] After the IAEA confirmed that Iran was complying with the relevant requirements of the JCPOA, all nuclear sanctions were lifted by the United Nations, the EU, and the United States on January 16, 2016. [370] The fate of the nuclear deal with Iran remains uncertain. Biden said the U.S. would join the deal if Iran returned to compliance, but that he also wanted to negotiate a successor deal to address Iran`s other activities, such as its missile program.

On August 8, 2015, 29 prominent U.S. scientists, mostly physicists, published an open letter supporting the agreement. [231] [232] The letter to Obama states, “We commend you and your team for negotiating a technically sound, rigorous, and innovative agreement that will provide the necessary security in the next decade and more than Iran does not develop nuclear weapons, and provide a basis for new initiatives aimed at increasing obstacles to nuclear proliferation in the Middle East and around the world.” [232] The letter also states that the agreement “will advance the cause of peace and security in the Middle East and can serve as a guide for future non-proliferation agreements.” [231] [232] The 29 signatories included “some of the world`s most knowledgeable experts in the field of nuclear weapons and arms control,” many of whom had Q communiqués and were longtime advisers to Congress, the White House, and federal agencies. [231] The five lead authors were Richard L. Garwin (a nuclear physicist who played a key role in the development of the first hydrogen bomb and whom the New York Times described as “one of the last living physicists to help usher in the atomic age”)); Robert J. Goldston (Director of Princeton`s Global Science and Security Program and former Director of Princeton`s Plasma Physics Laboratory); R. Scott Kemp (Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering at MIT and former Scientific Advisor on Non-Proliferation and Arms Control at the Department of State); Rush D. Holt (physicist and former U.S. representative who is now president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science); and Frank N. von Hippel (Professor of Public Policy at Princeton and former Deputy Director of National Security in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy).

Six Nobel laureates in physics signed the letter with: Philip W. Anderson of Princeton University; Leon N. Cooper of Brown University; Sheldon L. Glashow of Boston University; David Gross of the University of California, Santa Barbara; Burton Richter of Stanford University; and Frank Wilczek of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [231] Other scientists who will sign include Siegfried S. Hecker (Stanford physicist and former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory), Freeman Dyson (Princeton), and Sidney Drell (Stanford). [231] Iran began gradually violating the agreement in May 2019. Tehran linked its decision to violate the limits of the JCPOA to the agreement`s failure to provide the sanctions relief provided for in the agreement. Iran is still a participant in the JCPOA and says it will return to compliance with the deal if its demands for sanctions relief are met.

In comments at the Aspen Security Forum in Aspen, Colorado, in July 2015, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper said the JCPOA would improve the U.S. ability to monitor Iran: “[The deal] puts us in a much better position in terms of insight and access” than no deal. [204] Clapper remained “concerned about compliance and deception,” but stressed “that [Iran] during the negotiation period complied with the rules” negotiated under the interim agreement (the Joint JCPOA). [204] The Iran nuclear deal made headlines around the world as a historic deal between extreme adversaries. .